Advertisements

Revenue Questions


wealthymattersThis post is in continuation of these 2:Link.Link.

This post is on how to analyse the key revenue constituents of a profit and loss statement (P&L).

Some companies report the ‘total income’ earned by them within a year as ‘sales’. As an investor,its better for us if we take a company’s integral earnings or core operations only as sales and not the income that is generated from other operations. The latter could include items such income from sale of scrap, income from interest and dividends, forex gains, profit on sale of assets, export incentives and miscellaneous receipts, amongst others.While these items may not be a significant part of the total income, it is still a good practice to follow. In fact, it would be even better if we could further bifurcate such earnings under two heads – other operating income and other income. Details regarding total income are found in respective schedules.

Revenues are generated from sales of goods or services. For companies which have a presence in various businesses, it is a good practice idea to track the change in segment wise/ product wise / business wise revenues on a year on year basis. Look at how the income from each business segment (as a percentage of net sales) has changed over the years. This will give us a good idea how a company’s segments or businesses have been performing over a particular time frame.

Another way a company can diversify itself is by having its presence across various geographies. We can study a company’s revenue pattern (from each zone, region or country) over the years. Companies having transnational presence have the option of focusing on the high growth areas or areas that are relatively resilient to an economic slowdown. In addition, if its operations in a certain country/region are witnessing a problem, it could curb the fall in revenue by focusing on operations in other countries/regions.Companies enter new businesses for two main reasons -to diversify their revenue streams and de-risk their business from a presence in a single segment. Further it also helps to capitalise on the opportunities in fast growing segments. A classic example would be ITC Limited’s entrance into other businesses (hotels, agri, non-FMCG, papers, etc.) Over time, this move has helped it reduce dependence on its cigarettes business. The chart above gives an idea of how the scenario has changed for the company over the past few years.

Next,the revenue volatility could be high for companies that are present in seasonal or cyclical businesses, especially if viewed on a quarterly basis. A seasonal business is a business for which certain seasons of the year are far more profitable than others. These include businesses such as seeds and fertilizers (harvest season), hotels (vacation), air conditioners (summer season), rain coats and umbrellas (monsoon season), amongst others. On the other hand, a cyclical business is largely dependent on economic cycles. A classic example is the cement business, where there is a high correlation between the GDP growth and the growth in cement consumption.For such companies,investors need to look at performance over the long run.

Advertisements

About Keerthika Singaravel
Engineer,Investor,Businessperson

Please Leave Me Your Comments!I Love Reading Them!

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: